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Emergency physicians and forensic examiners are often asked to date bruises/contusions. The appearance of a bruise depends on three factors: the skin must be stretched/compressed enough to tear blood vessels without losing surface integrity, sufficient pressure must be present for blood to escape from the vessels into the tissues, and the escaped blood must be near the skin surface to be seen.Too many variables can affect the creation and resolution of a bruise. They then progress to blue, then to brown, yellow, or green.

It is essential not only to assess the mechanism of production of a bruise, taking into account the type of impacting surface and the magnitude of force used, but also to estimate when the injury was caused.

These include type of tissue injured (loose tissue bruises earlier), mechanism of injury, length, duration of force, depth of injury (superficial bruises appear earlier), skin color, health status of the patient, medications (anticoagulants, antiplatelet agents, steroids), and age. Color may help determine “early” or “late” bruising, but more precise timing on color alone is simply not accurate.

Some studies do indicate that yellow will not appear in a bruise until at least 18–24 hours after an injury. Riviello is professor of emergency medicine at Drexel Emergency Medicine in Philadelphia.

Barsley et al (1990) note that a major disadvantage of using UV photography is that the observer can not visualise what is being captured on film, and describe a technique of using a video recorder to capture UV images.

Bruises located nearer to the surface appearing red, while those located deeper appeared blue (due to the optical characteristics of the skin and the 'Rayleigh scatter phenomenon' i.e.